NSW Arbovirus Surveillance & Vector Monitoring Program
The Viruses

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Sindbis: this is an extremely widespread virus throughout the world and occurs in all mainland states of Australia. In contrast with Africa and Europe where outbreaks have been reported, disease from Sindbis is virtually unknown in Australia. There have been only two reports of clinical symptoms as a result of Sindbis infection, with symptoms including fever and rash. Birds are the main host, although other animals can be infected such as macropods, cattle, dogs and humans. The virus has been isolated from many mosquito species, but most notably Culex annulirostris in south eastern Australia.


Alfuy: no clinical disease has been associated with this virus and it has not been isolated from south east Australia.

Edge Hill: a single case of presumptive infection with EH has been described, with symptoms including myalgia, arthralgia and muscle fatigue. Ochlerotatus vigilax has yielded most of the EH isolates in south east Australia, although it has been isolated from several other mosquito species. The vertebrate hosts may be wallabies and bandicoots, however studies are limited.

Kokobera: only three cases of illness associated with Kokobera infection have been reported and all were from south east Australia. Symptoms included mild fever, aches and pains in the joints, and severe headaches and lethargy. Symptoms were still being reported by the patients five months after onset. Culex annulirostris appears to be the principal vector.

Stratford: there have been very few documented symptomatic patients, only three described to date and symptoms included fever, arthritis and lethargy. The virus has mostly been isolated from Ochlerotatus vigilax, although recent isolates from the Sydney metropolitan area include Oc. notoscriptus and Oc. procax.


Gan Gan: a virus known mainly from south eastern Australia and has been recording, albeit rarely, as causing a mild illness. Three patients with suspected disease from Gan Gan were noted with fever, malaise, myalgia, polyarthralgia/ployarthritis and rash. Mosquitoes such as Ochlerotatus vigilax and Culex annulirostris have been found infected with the virus. Nothing is known on the reservior hosts.

Trubanaman: antibodies to Trubanaman have been found in humans, and two patients with symptoms similar to that of Gan Gan had serology suggestive of Trubanaman. Most isolates in south east Australia have come from Anopheles annulipes.

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