Sydney University Department of Medical Entomology Westmead Hospital
Travel Bugs

Click on the continent for Travel Bug information

Click on a continent for a list of vector-borne diseases in the region.
Click on disease for more information.
(See NOTE at the bottom of the page).

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AFRICA
:
Fleas - Epidemic Typhus, Plague, Tungiasis; Flies (non-mosquito) - African Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Loaiasis, Myiasis flies, Onchocerciasis, Phlebotomus Fevers; Mosquitoes - Chikungunya virus, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, Malaria, Rift Valley Fever, Sindbis, O'Nyong-nyong virus, Yellow Fever; Ticks - Boutonneuse Fever, Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever. Also see "Worldwide".

ANTARTICA: no vector-borne disease, see "Worldwide".

AUSTRALIA: Mosquitoes - Barmah Forest virus, Dengue, Kunjin encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, Ross River virus, Sindbis; Mites - Scrub Typhus; Ticks - Queensland Tick Typhus & Flinders Island Spotted Fever, Tick Paralysis. Also see "Worldwide".

CENTRAL AMERICA: Fleas - Epidemic Typhus, Tungiasis; Flies (non-mosquito) - Leishmaniasis, Onchocerciasis, Phlebotomus Fevers; Hemiptera - Chagas' Disease; Mosquitoes - Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, Malaria, Mayaro virus, Oropouche Fever, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Western Equine Encephalitis, Yellow Fever; Ticks - Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Tickborne Relapsing Fever. Also see "Worldwide".

EUROPE: Flies (non-mosquito) - Leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus Fevers; Mosquitoes - Sindbis, Ockelbo, West Nile Fever; Ticks - Boutonneuse Fever, Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, Lyme disease, Tickborne Encephalitis, Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Tularaemia. Also see "Worldwide".

GREENLAND & associated islands, ICELAND: see "Worldwide".

INDIA, MIDDLE EAST (and other subcontinent nations): Fleas - Epidemic Typhus, Murine Typhus, Plague; Flies (non-mosquito) - Leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus Fevers; Mites - Scrub Typhus; Mosquitoes - Chikungunya virus, Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis virus, Lymphatic Filariasis, Malaria, Powassan Encephalitis, Sindbis, West Nile Fever; Ticks - Boutonneuse FeverCrimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, Kyasanur Forest Disease, Tularaemia, Tickborne Relapsing Fever. Also see "Worldwide".

NEW GUINEA & western Pacific Islands: Mites - Scrub Typhus; Mosquitoes - Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis virus, Lymphatic Filariasis, Malaria, Murray Valley Encephalitis. Also see "Worldwide".

NEW ZEALAND: no vector-borne disease but Simulid flies (locally called sandflies) can be of serious nuisance biting in the south Island, also see "Worldwide".

NORTH AMERICA: Flies (non-mosquito) - Phlebotomus Fevers; Fleas - Epidemic Typhus, Murine Typhus, Plague; Mosquitoes - Dengue, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Powassan Encephalitis, St Louis Encephalitis, Western Equine Encephalitis; Ticks - Colorado Tick Fever, Human Babesiosis (US only), Human Ehrlichiosis, Lyme diseaseRocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Tickborne Relapsing FeverTick Paralysis, Tularaemia. Also see "Worldwide".

RUSSIA (includes former USSR countries): Mosquitoes - Powassan Encephalitis, Sindbis, West Nile Fever; Fleas - Plague; Flies (non-mosquito) - Phlebotomus Fevers; Mites - Scrub Typhus; Ticks - Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, Issyk-Kul Fever, Lyme disease, Omsk Haemorrhagic Fever, Siberian Tick Typhus, Tickborne Encephalitis, Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Tularaemia. Also see "Worldwide".

SE ASIA, CHINA & JAPAN: Fleas - Epidemic Typhus, Murine Typhus, Plague; Mites - Scrub Typhus; Mosquitoes - Chikungunya virus, Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis virus, Lymphatic Filariasis, Malaria, Powassan Encephalitis, Sindbis; Ticks - Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, Lyme Disease (China & Japan),Tularaemia. Also see "Worldwide".

SOUTH AMERICA: Flies (non-mosquito) - Bartonellosis, Leishmaniasis, Myiasis flies, Onchocerciasis, Phlebotomus Fevers; Hemiptera - Chagas' Disease; Fleas - Plague; Tungiasis; Mosquitoes - Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, Malaria, Mayaro virus, Rocio Encephalitis, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Western Equine Encephalitis, Yellow Fever; Ticks - Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Tickborne Relapsing Fever. Also see "Worldwide".

WORLDWIDE: in all continents there are the following insect pests; Bed bugs, Bird mites, Body lice, Dust mites, Head lice, Pubic lice and Scabies. Plus there are various members from the following groups, although the species will vary from country to country; Ants, Bees, Cockroaches, Fleas, Flies (both biting and non-biting), Mosquitoes, Scorpions, Spiders, Ticks, Urticating Caterpillars and Wasps.


NOTE: this list is a guideline to the better known vector-borne disease around the world and does not include other forms of non vector-borne diseases (such as hepatitis, and cholera). It is highly recommended that travellers consult a specialised Travel Medicine Clinic prior to visiting a country. However, for most vector-borne diseases, peak incidence tends to occur through the warmer months and mosquito-transmitted diseases are more common during and after periods of heavy rain. Tropical regions in undeveloped countries tend to have more diseases, while extremely dry regions, cold climates and major cities usually have less, but there are exceptions to this rule and a Travel Medicine Clinic can offer expert advice on vector-borne diseases in a specific country.

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