|The New South Wales Arbovirus Surveillance & Mosquito Monitoring Program|
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Arthropod-borne viruses (or "arboviruses") are transmitted to
humans through the bite of mosquitoes. Those arboviruses of greatest concern, within New
South Wales, are Ross River,
Barmah Forest, Murray Valley
encephalitis and Kunjin
virus (for actual numbers of human cases visit:
The NSW arbovirus surveillance program for monitoring mosquito populations has been conducted annually since the summer of 1984/85, with arbovirus isolations from the mosquitoes beginning in the 1988/89 season. There have been two collection sites each at up to 30 locations throughout the state, in coastal and inland regions. The trapping program is designed to cover the period of seasonal increase and decrease in the populations of the major arbovirus vectors, from mid-spring to mid-autumn, and also to cover the period for natural activity and transmission of arboviruses (especially the alphaviruses and the flaviviruses).
The compilation and analysis of data collected over a number of successive years will provide a solid base from which to determine the underlying causes for the seasonal fluctuations in arbovirus activity and the relative abundance of the mosquito vector species affecting the well-being of human communities. This information will be the basis for modifying existing local and regional vector control programs, and the creation of new ones.
To monitor mosquito
vector populations in coastal and inland areas of N.S.W. at risk of arbovirus activity by
routine sampling; identify the major pest and vector species for each locality, and
monitor population fluctuations of the important species (especially Culex annulirostris for inland areas
and Aedes vigilax for coastal sites).
To identify arbovirus (both flavivirus and alphavirus) activity by processing mosquito samples, isolating arboviruses through cell culture and identifying isolated arboviruses with serological techniques.
To analyse environmental data relevant to vector mosquito and arbovirus activity.
To provide early warning
of activity of arboviruses and vector mosquitoes of concern for the public health of
To provide increasing understanding of interrelationships between arboviruses, vectors and environmental conditions in the various regions of N.S.W.
Public Health Units (PHU)
and Local Government Councils will have early warning of the need to undertake vector
control measures and issue media releases warning the public to take self-protective
PHUs and Councils will have accurate information required to maximise the effect of any control measures.
The Health Department will have reliable data to assess the need to implement the Contingency Plan for the Control of Arbovirus Disease in N.S.W., notably in relation to the flaviviruses Murray Valley Encephalitis and Kunjin.
The Program has recorded
59 different mosquitoes, including several new to New South Wales, and has extended the
known distribution of many important species.
Continual trapping over many years has provided baseline data for mosquito population abundance at several locations throughout NSW. This allows for the interpretation of fluctuations in population numbers and provides a possible alert to arbovirus activity.
The Program has identified the following arboviruses in New South Wales: the alphaviruses, Ross River, Barmah Forest and Sindbis; the flaviviruses, Kunjin, Edge Hill, Stratford and Kokobera; and the bunyaviruses, Gan Gan and Trubanaman. Many localities have new records for these viruses.
The Program has identified the presence of unusual virus activity and alerted health authorities, prior to the recognition of human infection. This occurred in 1990/91 when Kunjin was identified from the inland areas, and 1994/95 when Barmah Forest virus was identified from the south coast of NSW.
CLANCY, J.G. and RUSSELL, R.C. (1997). The "other" mosquitoes of New South Wales. Arbovirus Research in Australia, 7: 41-46.
CLANCY, J.G. and RUSSELL, R.C. (1992). Further investigations into the influence of temperature on populations of Culex annulirostris Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in New South Wales. Arbovirus Research in Australia, 6: 5-10.
DOGGETT, S.L., Koevski, I., Haniotis, J. and Russell, R.C. (1997). "MOSAVEX"; a mechanical device to grind mosquitoes for arbovirus detection. Arbovirus Research in Australia, 7: 75-78.
DOGGETT, S., RUSSELL, R., CLOONAN, M., CLANCY, J. and HANIOTIS, J. (1996). Surveillance for arboviruses in mosquitoes in New South Wales, Australia, 1995-96. Arthropod-Borne Virus Information Exchange, June 1996: 31-32.
DOGGETT, S., RUSSELL, R., CLOONAN, M., CLANCY, J. and HANIOTIS, J. (1995). Arbovirus and mosquito activity on the south coast of New South Wales, 1994-95. Communicable Diseases Intelligence, 19: 473-475.
DOGGETT, S., RUSSELL, R., CLOONAN, M., CLANCY, J. and HANIOTIS, J. (1995). Arbovirus and mosquito activity on the south coast of New South Wales, Australia 1994/95. Arthropod-Borne Virus Information Exchange, December 1995: 29-32.
HANIOTIS, J., DOGGETT, S.L., CLOONAN, M.J. and RUSSELL, R.C. (1997). A quality control procedure for a fixed-cell ELISA. Arbovirus Research in Australia, 7: 88-91.
RUSSELL, R.C., CLOONAN, M.J., DOGGETT, S.L., CLANCY, J., HANIOTIS, J., WELLS, P., Fennell, M., Cunningham, A., Hueston, L. and Marchetti, M. (1997). Surveillance of arboviruses and vectors in NSW, 1993-1996. Arbovirus Research in Australia, 7: 228-234.
RUSSELL, R.C., DOGGETT, S.L., CLANCY, J., HANIOTIS, J. and CLOONAN, M.J. (1997). Mosquitoes and Barmah Forest virus: the 1995 epidemic in NSW. Arbovirus Research in Australia, 7: 235-239.
RUSSELL, R., CLOONAN, M., DOGGETT, S., CLANCY, J., HANIOTIS, J., WELLS, P. and Fennell, M. (1995). Surveillance for arboviruses in mosquitoes in New South Wales, Australia, 1991/92-1994/95. Arthropod-Borne Virus Information Exchange, June 1995: 33-36.
RUSSELL, R.C., WELLS, P.J., CLANCY, J.G., Naim, H.N., Marchetti, M., Fennell, M., Hueston, L., CLOONAN, M.J., Hawkes, R.A. and Cunningham, A.L. (1992). The surveillance of arbovirus activity in N.S.W. 1989-1992. Arbovirus Research in Australia, 6: 76-80.
RUSSELL, R.C. (1991). Arbovirus surveillance, New South Wales, 1989-91. Communicable Diseases Intelligence, 15 (14): 229-32.
RUSSELL, R.C. (1991). Arbovirus surveillance in N.S.W., Australia, 1989-91. Arthropod-Borne Virus Information Exchange, December 1991: 40-44.
RUSSELL, R.C. (1990). Arbovirus/vector monitoring
in N.S.W., Australia; 1988/89, 1989/90. Arthropod-Borne Virus Information
Exchange, December 1990: 41-42.
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